Here we find the fascinating adventure of human intelligence, with its two main catalysts: the two ice ages.
-The first, between -70 thousand and -50 thousand years.
-The second, between -28 thousand and -10 thousand years, main ice age.
Evolution of Race Differences in Intelligence…
The comparative perspective will focus on the big races/populations/genetic clusters of homo sapiens (Cavali -Sforza 2000). We will retrace how they evolved into distinct races and how race differences in intelligence evolved.
3. North Africans and South Asians
4. Southeast Asians
5. Pacific Islanders
6. Australian Aborigenes
8. East Asians
9. Arctic People
10. Native Americans
Table 16.2. Race differences in winter temperatures (degrees centigrade) and brain size.
Würm Temp refers to the temperature during the second ice age, which was the main catalyst for intelligence. The size of the brain is in cubic centimeters.
|S. Asian & N. Africans
From “Race differences in intelligence”, Richard Lynn, université d’Ulster, 2006 and 2nd edition 2015.
“The Intelligence Quotient”, Serge Larivée, Montréal University, 2008.
Evolution of Race Differences in Intelligence
We will analyze for each race where and when these differences appeared. Let’s start with the homo erectus that appeared in Equatorial Africa 1.7 million years ago, and lived there until 200 thousand years ago. During this period, his head volume increased from 885 cc to 1186 cc (Ruff, Trinkau and Holliday, 1997). The reason for this increase is that mammalian intelligence was under continual selection, with the most intelligent individuals leaving the largest number of descendants. At the end of this period, 200 thousand years ago, homo sapiens appeared. (Relethford 1988). The quality of their tools suggests that the homo erectus was endowed with a Q.I of about 50. (Mental age of a European of 7-8 years)
During the past 200,000 years, the ancestors of Africans have continued to inhabit tropical and subtropical environments in sub-Saharan Africa. This environment was not very demanding from a cognitive point of view because primates adapted to this kind of environment 60 million years ago. Homo erectus was a great eater of plants, and he supplemented his meals by using the carcasses of animals killed by lions, leopards and cheetahs. Most Africans lived as hunter-gatherers, much like the hunter-gatherer populations of today’s tropical and subtropical regions. Their diet consists largely of year-round plants, insects and eggs, with occasional meat supplements obtained through hunting.
The immediate availability of edible plants, insects and eggs all year long means that Africans in the tropics and subtropics have not had to hunt animals for food. In 1966 a conference of anthropologists was held in which a consensus was reached that “meat was of little nutritional importance in the African diet (Standford and Bunn, 2001, p.4). In 1999 a similar conference was held in which a consensus was reached that “the diet of the first hominids was originally plant-like, identical to that of the tropical and subtropical populations” (Standford and Bunn, 2001, p.356). As a result, Africans did not have selective pressure to develop the necessary intelligence for hunting methods, tools and weapons to kill large mammals.
Moreover, the temperature in Equatorial Africa varies annually between 17 ° C and 32 ° C, so Africans have not met the cognitive demands of the manufacture of clothing or tents, the establishment and maintenance of fires or the preparation and storage of food for future consumption. It was relatively easy to keep babies, children and young children alive because it was not necessary to make them clothes, and at a relatively young age they were able to get food from them. same. However, the brain of Africans has increased during the last 200 thousand years, from 1186cc to 1276cc, this allowed an increase in their intelligence to the current value of 71 of IQ This increase occurred in the same way as for homo erectus, thanks to a directional selection for more intelligence, the smartest individuals with larger descendants. The genetic process has consisted of an increase in the frequency of alleles for higher Q.I by natural selection and is also probably due to some mutations for higher intelligence. If these mutations for a higher intelligence appeared, they then spread throughout the population because intelligence confers a selective advantage, however the appearance of such mutations and their spreads were not as fast and important as in the races subjected to cold climates, because the selection pressure for a higher intelligence was not very strong in the climate of equatorial Africa.
The level of intelligence that evolved among Africans was sufficient to make small progress in the hunter-gatherer transition to agriculture, but insufficient to develop anything that could be called civilization with written or arithmetic language, construction of a calendar or that of cities with stone constructions or other criteria evoked by Baker (1974).
100 thousand years ago some groups of archaic Africans began to migrate south, where they evolved into bushmen and occupied most of South Africa. They are only a few tens of thousands to survive in the Kalahari Desert. During the last 100 thousand years, the bushmen’s brains increased by about 10 percent to a volume of 1270 cc and their average IQ increased to 54. The living conditions of the bushmen were quite similar to those of the Africans, with a diet consisting essentially of plants. One may wonder why the Bushmen have a Q.I lower than that of Africans (54 and 71 respectively). The explanation is undoubtedly that certain mutations for a higher intelligence have appeared among the Africans thanks to their much larger population, whereas they did not appear among the bushmen because of their much smaller number. However, the bushmen’s brain is only slightly smaller than the African, 1270 cc against 1276 cc. This tells us that the mutant alleles for a higher Q.I among Africans determine neurological processes rather than an increase in brain volume.
The first groups to migrate out of sub-Saharan Africa colonized North Africa and Southwest Asia 100 to 90 thousand years ago. Between -90 thousand and -60 thousand years ago, they colonized the whole of Southeast Asia. At this level they were isolated from the Africans by the distance and by the Sahara desert and thus evolved into a race apart: North African and South Asian (MENA in English for Middle-Easterners and North-Africans). They encountered a temperature similar to that found today in these regions, with the coldest winters at 13 ° C. 70 thousand years ago the first ice age occurred in the northern hemisphere and lasted until 50 thousand years ago. This period was followed by a warmer period ranging from -50 thousand years to -28 thousand years, followed by a second and more severe ice age (the main ice age) which stretched from -28 thousand years ago to -10 thousand years, then the temperatures went back to those we know (Roberts, 1989, Foley, 1987). During the main ice age, winter temperatures in North Africa, Eurasia and North America dropped to 5 ° C (Roberts, 1989). The coldest winters in North Africa and South Asia were 7 ° C.
Surviving during the cold ages required solving a series of problems requiring cognition, which exerted a selective pressure for greater intelligence than what was required in tropical and subtropical Africa. There were 5 major problems:
-First: The plants are no longer present in winter and spring, and are not abundant in summer and autumn. Insects and reptiles are no longer available because they hibernate in temperate climates. The main source of food became large mammals such as antelopes, deer, horses and wild boars that men had to kill to obtain food. It must have been difficult to kill these large mammals in the grasslands that covered most of the northern hemisphere during the last ice age because there is good visibility of several thousand meters and herbivores have learned to be wary of predators approaching. Fighting in open meadows is more difficult than in tropical or sub-tropical woodlands, where there are many corners where hunters can hide. Humans from Equatorial Africa were largely herbivorous and were not adapted to fight large mammals, so they had to present new cognitive problems for them. Large herbivores know how to run fast and are virtually impossible to catch just running after them. The only way to kill these animals was to use natural traps in which animals could be led and then killed. One of the most frequently exploited natural traps was the narrow ravines into which animals could be brought and fell. There, members of the troop waited in ambush. Another method used was the cliffs beyond which a group of men could bring a troop of herbivores, some of them fell from the edge and could be killed or wounded enough for the other members of the troop to complete. Archaeological research has shown that such traps were used by early humans in Eurasia (Geist 1978, Mellars 1999). The development of such cooperative strategies to kill and catch large herbivores has required increased cognitive skills and levels of cooperation.
It has been shown that in hunter-gatherer populations, the proportion of food obtained by hunting and that obtained by gathering varies according to latitude. Humans in tropical and subtropical areas are mainly gatherers, while men living in temperate environments practice more hunting, men in the Arctic and subarctic areas get their food mainly through hunting and fishing, forced that they are getting food in this way since plants were not available, except for berries and nuts in summer and autumn (Lee, 1968). When men migrated to the temperate regions of North Africa and South Asia, many of those with a weak Q.I did not survive the cold winters, this increased the average Q.I of the survivors to 84.
-Secondly: The effective hunting of large mammals requires the manufacture of various tools based on stones, wood and bone to make weapons and cut carcasses. Some of these animals were to be slaughtered by weapons and spikes made of stone, which requires prior preparation and usually the establishment of a point of stone attached to the end of a stick. Once the large herbivore fell, it still needed to be cut into transportable parts to the camp for women and children. These animals had hard skin and thick ligaments difficult to cut, so men had to design a variety of tools. In a subarctic environment the animals that were killed cooled very quickly and became impossible to cut, so the hunters had to have good tools to cut quickly, before the carcass became solid. Men in cold environments needed more tools of different types and higher complexity compared to men in tropical and subtropical regions. This has been shown by Torrence (1983), who has demonstrated an association between latitude and the number and complexity of tools used by contemporary hunter-gatherers. He found that hunter-gatherers in tropical and subtropical environments like the Amazon and New Guinea typically had between 10 and 20 tools while those in the colder latitudes of Siberia, Alaska and Greenland had between 25 and 20 tools. and 60 different tools. In addition, men in more northern environments make tools more complex, requiring the assembly of different pieces, such as a stone arrowhead or bone at the end of a wood.
-Third: Another set of problems faced by the peoples of the northern hemisphere has been maintaining heat. The men had to solve the problems of the fires and the shelters. Archaeological excavations have shown that during the centuries of the Ice Age the peoples of China and Europe have made fires. To do this, they had to learn how to make sparks by rubbing one stone against another to get those sparks and ignite dried grass. They needed a supply of dry grass and dry wood and animal dung stored in caves to start their fires and then keep them alive. It required intelligence and planning. Populations in sub-Saharan Africa and Australia also had fire, but it was easy for them to get fires in the tropics and subtropics, as there were spontaneous fires, burning bush fires. The problems of fire initiation have been much more complex in Eurasia and North Africa than in the tropical and subtropical hemisphere.
Fourth, an additional problem in retaining heat was the need to make clothing and tents by sewing together animal skins. This necessitated drying and treating the skins of large herbivores and making needles from bone and thread to sew skins together to make clothes and shoes. Some men took advantage of the warmth of the caves but in places where there were no caves they used skins stitched together to make tents resembling yurts that are still made in Mongolia (Gelst, 1978, Mellars and a1 ., 1999).
Fifth: The last problem for people in temperate and cold regions was food storage. This was necessary because when they had killed and dismembered several large mammals, they could not eat everything in a few days and they needed to keep them for future use.
Some animals that could be killed were migrants that appear in this or that location for short periods of time each year. This offered opportunities to kill a large number of them, too many for immediate consumption, but they could then be stored for future use. An example is the reindeer that migrates regularly over long distances at certain times of the year. In many cases they follow the routes of the year, so that their appearances could be predicted by the first humans who had acquired a knowledge of the seasons and calendar from astronomical observations. Another migratory species was salmon, which migrate in large numbers at a certain time of the year to the sea and the rivers. Many of these rivers are shallow and it is not too difficult to catch a large number of salmon running upstream. It is also possible to catch them in the nets, the construction of which was another cognitively problem for the peoples of Eurasia. These peoples should be able to anticipate the arrival of these migratory flocks and fish to kill many of them.
In very cold environments the problem of storing food could be solved for part of the year by the natural coolers, which served as freezers for the preservation of carcasses. Another solution was to cut into thin slices and to dry. This technique needs to be properly done so that the food can remain edible for a considerable time, but if it’s done badly the food becomes toxic. Some of the less intelligent, unable to do this properly, died of food poisoning. This was one of the many selection pressures acting to increase the intelligence of the colonizing peoples of the niche of temperate and cold environments. It has been suggested by Miller (1991) that storing food would also have required the formulation of rationing rules for consumption and that this would have led to the development of arithmetic. In contemporary hunter-gatherers, Binford (1980, 1985) has demonstrated that there is a relationship between the amount of storage of food and the temperature of the environment in which they live. The colder the environments, the more they store food for future consumption.
In addition to these five cognitive survival problems in the Northern Hemisphere, an additional selection pressure for the intellectual increase of these peoples was the sexual selection operation by women. In Eurasia, women became fully dependent on men for much of the year to obtain food for themselves and their children. In Africa and the southern hemisphere, where plants and insects are available all year round, women are relatively independent of men. Even women with dependent infants and young children can take them on trips for food, or they may be left with other women for a few hours while collecting plants. It was more difficult and often impossible for women with infants and young children in the northern hemisphere to go hunting in expeditions that could last several days, and required the killing and dismembering of large mammals, and then bring back pieces to the camp.
The effect of all this was that women in the northern hemisphere became dependent on men for their survival. They therefore made a selection to only mate with intelligent men, good at hunting and making tools and weapons. The effect of this sexual selection by women was that intelligent men had more children, which increased the group’s intelligence.
Another effect of women’s greater dependence on men in Eurasia was that men and women became psychologically more closely linked. This explains why marriages and non-marital relationships of Europe and East Asian peoples are more stable than those of Africans (Lynn, 2002).
To survive in the cold environment of the northern hemisphere, it required an increase in general intelligence, defined as a general problem-solving ability and in learning ability, and in most of the primary cognitive skills of which general intelligence is composed, a strong reasoning capacity was needed to solve the new problems encountered in the northern cold latitudes such as building shelters and fires, making clothes and making more efficient tools for hunting and butchering. Improved verbal ability was needed for better communication in discussions about how to solve these problems, planning future activities, and passing on knowledge and cultural skills to children.
Improved visualization capacity was needed to plan and execute hunting group strategies using spears, and for making more sophisticated tools and weapons of stone, bone and wood. Fathers showed their sons how to produce good cutting tools and how to make good spearheads, and these skills were largely imitated, just as craftsmanship is learned by today’s apprentices. looking at skilled craftsmen, rather than verbal explanations. Hunting and tool-making would have been undertaken mainly by men, and this is why it has almost always been found that visuospatial abilities are stronger in men than in women (Linn and Peterson, 1986).
The selection pressures to increase intelligence in temperate environments of North Africa and South Asia, later in the subarctic environment of Europe and North Asia, have acted on men and women. The selection pressure on men for greater intelligence was necessary to go on a hunting expedition and to kill large mammals, as well as to provide the necessary tools for hunting and for skinning and cutting into pieces. This will have required improved spatial intelligence and reasoning, which is more important on average for men (Lynn and Petersen 1986, Lynn and Irwing 2004). Women would have needed to strengthen the general intelligence to start and maintain fires and store food, their storage and future consumption, and they had a responsibility to keep babies and young children alive by keeping them warm.
The genetic processes occurring in North Africa and South Asia were an increase in allele frequencies for greater intelligence (through natural selection) and probably the emergence of new mutations for greater intelligence and their diffusion across the continent. race.
The most likely scenario is that the intelligence of North Africans and South Asians (MENA) increased during each of the two ice ages. The first took place between about -70,000 and -50,000 years and the second between about -28,000 and -10,000 years.
The increase in intelligence at the end of the first of these two ice ages can be inferred by their more sophisticated tools and other objects (Stringer and McKie, 1996, pp. 185-187). However, their intelligence has not grown enough to be able to make the Neolithic transition from hunter-gatherers to sedentary agriculture. A further increase in intelligence occurred during the second major ice age. The severity of the climate during this period was an important selection pressure that will increase the brains of South Asians and North Africans up to 1342 cc and their IQ up to 84. This was enough to allow them to do the same. Neolithic transition to sedentary agriculture, then then to build the first civilizations along the valleys of the Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, and the Indus, in which they developed cities, written languages, the arithmetic, legal systems and all the criteria of a civilization.
4. Southeast Asians
People from South Asia migrated to Southeast Asia about 70,000 years ago and evolved into Southeast Asians. This region has a tropical and subtropical climate where the coldest temperature in winter is about 24 ° C. These people reached this region before the onset of the ice ages which have little effect in South Asia.
However, their IQ of 87 is higher than that of North Africans and South Asians (84) from whom they have evolved. The most likely explanation is that there are some mixtures with East Asians, who have migrated south and crossed the indigenous populations. There have been substantial migrations of Southeast Asians to Asia. Thus, today in Singapore, 76 per cent of the population is Chinese, in Malaysia 30 per cent of the population is Chinese, and there are large minorities in China in Cambodia and Thailand (Philippe, 1996). These East Asians have crossed with the native peoples and this has produced a hybrid population. Because of this migration and inter-breeding, the people of South Asia are closely linked genetically to those of southern China (Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, and Piazza, 1994, p.78). The Chinese mixture in South Asians has put into place in their genomes some alleles of great intelligence and their IQ has risen to 87.
This Q.I from the Southeast Asians helped to make the Neolithic transition from hunter-gatherers to sedentary agriculture, and then build moderately impressive civilizations around 0-1,000 AD. These civilizations appear a little later than those of South Asians and North Africa because the valleys in South Asia have been densely wooded and have no plains available from which agriculture can be produced to support the first civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China. However, from 1000 NCPs, their IQ was not sufficient to be able to compete economically or in science and technology with Europeans and East Asians.
5. Pacific Islanders
Only 6,000 years ago, some Southeast Asians began migrating to the Pacific Islands, where they evolved into Pacific Islanders. Their IQ of 85 is not significantly different from that of 87 Southeast Asians from which they have largely evolved, and is also higher than would be expected in mild climates, where the coldest temperature in winter monthly is about 24 ° C. The explanation is a mixture with East Asians who migrated south and crossed with the indigenous peoples. The presence of significant East Asian ancestry among Pacific Islanders is corroborated by their small teeth (Brace and Hinton 1981). Unlike the Southeast Asians, the Pacific Islanders made only moderate progress in the Neolithic transition to sedentary agriculture and no progress in the development of civilizations. The explanation is that their population has been very small, a few thousand, scattered on distant islands and separated by very great distances. Only the Maori have had a large territory in New Zealand, but they did not colonize the islands until the year 800 and did not have enough time to produce a large population and make a complete neolithic transition, to start building a civilization.
ome of the peoples of South Asia and East Asia emigrated to the islands of the Indonesian archipelago and arrived in New Guinea some 65,000 years ago. Some 60,000 years ago some of these peoples emigrated to Australia, where they evolved into Australian Aborigines (Bradshaw, 1997). A closely related people survived in the highlands of New Guinea as the aborigines of New Guinea.
The ancestors of Australian aboriginals and New Guineans have never been exposed to the harsh winters that began in South Asia with the onset of the first Ice Age about 70,000 years ago. At that time, they would have been in South Asia, Indonesia or New Guinea, which are on the equator or near it. Nor were they affected by the main ice age. Thus, Australian Aborigines and New Guineans have the morphological characteristics of a people who have evolved in tropical and subtropical environments and have never been exposed to a temperate climate. They are similar to Africans because of their dark skin, flat noses, long legs, thin trunks, and large teeth.
Like other peoples who have evolved in tropical and subtropical environments, New Guineans and Australian Aborigines have been able to live on plant foods, insects and eggs all year long.
When Australian aborigines were studied in the Western Australian desert in the twentieth century it was found that they were getting 70-80 percent of their food from plants and the rest from eggs and eggs. ‘insects. They did not have a hunting technique (Gould, 1969). It has been estimated that the Gadio people, a tribe of New Guineans, obtain 96 percent of their food from plants and only 4 percent from meat (Dornstreich, 1973). The availability of plant foods throughout the year, together with insects and eggs, indicates that Aboriginal peoples in tropical and subtropical New Guinea and Australia have never had to rely on meat for their food supply and did not have strong selection pressure to develop the cognitive skills required to hunt large animals. They also did not need to make clothes to warm up. “Tasmanians usually were naked” (Coon 1967: 114). This explains why their intelligence and the size of their brain are weak. IQ of 62 and average brain size of 1225 cc. These sizes are a bit lower than those of Africans with their IQ of 71 and the size of their brains of 1,280 cc. The most likely explanation is that Africans have a much larger population in which mutations for greater intelligence were more likely to occur, while the aborigines of Australia were much less numerous. The number of indigenous people in the highlands of New Guinea is about a quarter of a million. The number of Australian Aborigines in the eighteenth century when the first Europeans arrived is estimated at about 300 thousand. In such a small population, the probability of new mutations occurring for greater intelligence was low and the geographic isolation of Aborigines from Australia and New Guinea prevented the acquisition of mutations of other races.
When Europeans first discovered Aboriginal people at the end of the eighteenth century, they found aborigines at a primitive level of cultural development. “Their culture was in the Stone Age, the culture was (and still is) without pottery, without agriculture, or metals” (Cole, 1965, 82). They did not plant seeds to grow food or raise herds of animals (Elkin, 1967). They do not store food for future consumption. As described by Bleakley (1961: 78), “the native seems to have no idea of the supply against hunger. Thomas (1925, 295) describes the Aborigine as “a nomad, who knows neither pottery nor metalworking, does not have domestic animals, the dingo is at most tame and he does not He does not like cultivating the soil, he feeds on snakes and lizards, larvae, and simple vegetables every day. “Their main instruments are the stone ax and the knife, and microliths. Their weapons consist of clubs and spears. Women use the stick to uproot yam and other roots “(Cole, 1965: 83). They never invented or acquired the bow and arrow (Coon, 1967). Many of the Colombian explorers of anthropologists who studied Aborigines in the nineteenth century concluded that they had a low level of intelligence: “they are still only children in their mental development” (Wake, 1872, 80).
Their languages lacked numbers except for numbers one and two: “one and two represents the range of their numbers” (Crawfurd, 1883, 170). Their languages are also very weak in abstract concepts and “poor in collective nouns” (Curr, 1886, p.20), indicative of the inability to formulate general concepts which is one of the main characteristics of intelligence. The Aboriginal people, however, made primitive drawings that survive in the Jinmiun Rock Shelter in the Northern Territories and have been dated to about -58,000 years ago (Bradshaw, 1997).
Diamond (1997: 309) attributes the failure of Australian Aborigines to domesticate animals or to develop agriculture to “the absence of domesticable animals, the poverty of domesticable plants, and soils and a harsh climate. But on the next page he tells us that yams, taro or arrowroot are wild in the north of Australia and may have been planted, and There are two wild grasses that could have been grown to produce cereals. The kangaroo and the dingo could have been domesticated by selective breeding over a number of generations. The climate of Australia is green and varied and apart from the deserts of the central region, it is conducive to agriculture that was developed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by Europeans.
Tasmanians have an even lower level of cultural development than the aborigines of the Australian continent. The Russian anthropologist Vladimir Kabo (1995: 603) wrote that they are “the only society that persists at a paleolithic stage until the beginning of European colonization.” Captain William Bligh visited Tasmania in 1788 and the described as nomadic hunter-gatherers who “had miserable wigwams, in which only kangaroo skin lay on the ground”, “they move from one AREC to another, search for food on their own.” passage, the search for berries and fruits and the seeds of shrubs constitute their diet and ‘they usually went nude, but sometimes draped a kangaroo skin on their body (Bowdler and Ryan, 1997, pp. 313-326). They are the only people who have never discovered how to make fire (Gort, 2002). They were sometimes able to get fire from the bush logs. They never invented the device of fitting a pointed stone into a wooden well to make a spear or an ax (Ryan, 1992).
When Europeans discovered the Neo-Guineans in the 17th and 18th centuries, they found them at a more advanced stage of cultural development than the aborigines of Australia. The New Guineans are largely hunter-gatherers, but they had some agriculture of planting yams and bananas, and domesticated chickens. But “until the Europeans began to colonize them, the New Guineans were non-literate, dependent on stone tools, and politically not yet organized into states, or (with a few exceptions) chieftaincies” (Diamond 1997: 299). Following European colonization, some of them moved to villages and others stayed in rural areas. Europeans built schools in towns and villages and boarding schools were created for those in rural areas, although some children in rural areas do not attend school. Kelly (1977) describes the lifestyle of the typical rural people of the village and tribes in Papua New Guinea in the 1970s. They lived largely for subsistence, slash-and-burn agriculture carried out mainly by women. Men engaged in some hunting activities, and some of them worked in coffee plantations run by Europeans. The clothes consist of skirts made of leaves and bark. Some of these tribes had counting systems that allowed them to count to a thousand while others had only words for “one,” “more than one,” and “many.” The main reason why New Guineans were a little more advanced than the Australian Aborigines is that the coastal areas of the island were reached by South Asians, who brought with them taro, an edible root that they cultivated, and they also brought domesticated hens. The New Guineans have adopted some of these cultural innovations, but have never developed anything that could be called a civilization with cities, substantial buildings, metallurgy, a written language, or arithmetic.
Some of the peoples who colonized the Near East between 100,000 and 90,000 years ago migrated to the north and about 60,000 years ago reached the Caucasus, from which they spread into the Ukraine, then, there is about 40,000 years old, in Central and Western Europe. Other peoples of Southwest Asia began to colonize southeastern Europe in Anatolia. These peoples evolved into Europeans with their pale skin and, in northern Europe, their blond hair and blue eyes. Europeans were isolated from South Asians and North Africans (MENA) by the Mediterranean Sea, and to the east by the Black and Caspian Seas, the high mountains of the Caucasus and Himalayas and the Kara Koum Desert at Turkmenistan. In the main glacial period, which lasted about 28,000 to 10,000 years, the winters were much harsher than those of South Asia with the coldest winter month falling to about -5 ° C. Europe has become similar to that of Alaska and Siberia. The north of England, Germany, Russia, and all of Scandinavia were covered with a permanent layer of ice and the rest of Europe were cold meadows and tundra with a few bunches of trees in sheltered places.
These cold winters were the main selection pressure for an increase in brain size and intelligence of Europeans, pushing brain growth up to 1369 cc and their IQ up to 99. Expressing the increase in size of the brain in the form of encephalisation quotient (EQ) to control body size, Cutler (1976) estimated that the European before the main ice age had an EQ of 7.3 and at the end of glaciation a QE 8.1. When the ice that covered Northern Europe retreated 10,000 years ago the Europeans with their increased intelligence were able to make the transition from the Neolithic to sedentary agriculture. However, despite their high IQ, they were not able to develop early civilizations like those built by South Asians and North Africans because Europe was still cold, forest-covered, soils were difficult to plowing and there were no plains to pour very fertile alluvial deposits from which agricultural surpluses can be obtained and support an urban civilization and a class of intellectuals (Landes, 1998). In -2500 Europeans overcame these problems in the relatively favorable climate of Southern Europe, where they developed the first European civilizations, in Crete and Greece. In – 700 the Italians began to build a civilization that would become the Roman Empire and in 200 AD embraced all of Europe from the western Rhine, including the Danube Basin, the Near East and North Africa. These early European civilizations in Greece and Rome surpassed those of South Asians and North Africans in science, mathematics, technology, literature, philosophy and the arts. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 455 AD and European culture suffered a setback in the dark ages that followed, but from AD 1000 it came back and the Europeans became the first people in virtually every field of civilization. This is largely documented by Murray (2003).
The genetic processes by which the IQ of Europeans has evolved have consisted of changes in the frequency of alleles to a greater proportion of alleles for greater intelligence and probably also by the appearance of new mutations for greater intelligence and the rapid spread of these beneficial mutations in the population. The likelihood of new mutations for better intelligence among Europeans has been increased by the extreme cold stress that Europeans have been exposed to.
The lower IQ in the range of 90-94 in southern Europe is probably attributable to some gene flow between the Middle East and Europeans across the Dardanelles Strait and the Aegean and the production of a population of hybrids in the Balkans whose IQ is intermediate between that of Europeans (99) and that of South Asians (84). Miscegenation is present in Turkey where the IQ of about 90 is only slightly lower than that of the Balkans.
People of the South and Central Asia began to colonize North Asia between -60,000 and -50,000 years ago, where they evolved into East Asians. The East Asians were very isolated from the Europeans by the Gobi desert in the west and South Asians by the Himalayas to the south. The winters to which they were exposed were much more severe than in South Asia and a little more severe than in Europe, with temperatures in winter at around -12 ° C during the main glaciation. The reason for the colder winter compared to Europe is that North Asia constitutes a much larger mass of land while Europe is much smaller, so Europe is warmed by the winds dominating the western Atlantic. It is in response to cold winters that East Asians have evolved with cold adaptations such as a flattened nose to prevent frostbite, small legs and a thick trunk to retain heat, a layer of fat under -cutaneous which gives the skin a yellowish appearance, rare facial hair in men (because the abundant beard would freeze and produce frostbite), and slanted eyes to mitigate the dazzling effect of reflected light by snow and ice. The harsh winters would have acted as a strong selection for intelligence and raised the IQ of East Asian peoples to 105. The genetic processes involved were probably an increase in allele frequencies for greater intelligence by natural selection and also new mutations for greater intelligence resulting from chance and stress due to severe cold. New mutations for improved visuospatial intelligence have emerged in East Asians and spread to the population because they have been useful for hunting, tool making, and long-distance navigation. through a terrain without relief.
As with Europeans, it is likely that most of the increase in intelligence in East Asians occurred during the main glaciation. This will have acted as the selection pressure for a larger brain size and must have driven their IQ up to its current value of 105. Only after the end of Würm’s glaciation did their intelligence reach the level to which they were able to make the transition from Neolithic to sedentary agriculture and then to build the civilization of the Yellow River Valley and subsequent developments of civilizations in China, Japan and Korea. From 0 to 1500 AD, the Chinese built impressive civilizations that were, in some respects, ahead of those of Europe. For example, the Chinese invented printing, paper, paper money, gunpowder, the compass, and the construction of chains with locks several centuries before the Europeans. In the period from 1500 to the present, however, the intellectual record of East Asia was less impressive than that of the Europeans. Historians see this as a major issue for which there is no consensus. One factor may be that East Asians have developed a higher degree of social conformity than Europeans, documented by Allik and Realo (2004), which is also expressed in their low level of psychopathic personalities. A low level of social conformity and a share of psychopathic personalities seem to be ingredients in creative achievement because they reduce the anxiety of social disapproval and seem to facilitate the generation of original ideas that are required for the highest levels. high levels of scientific discovery. Another factor suggested by Weede and Kampf (2002), is that in a large part of its history, China was a single autocratic state and the leaders managed to suppress freedoms, including the freedom to think, this was more effective that among the leaders of the many European states, which have been forced by competition to grant freedoms to their peoples.
Somewhere between -50,000 and -40,000 of the archaic peoples of Asia migrated to the far north of Asia where they evolved into Eskimos. These peoples evolved into a separate race because they were geographically isolated from East Asia, to the south, by the high Chersky, Khrebet, Khingan, and Sayan mountains, and about a thousand miles of forest north of the Love River. The northern peoples experienced the most severe conditions with the coldest winter temperatures at around -15 ° C and falling to around -20 ° C during the Würm Main glaciation. In response to these cold winters, Arctic peoples have evolved with morphological adaptations to cold more pronounced than those of Asia, including the flat noses, short legs and thick trunks, the layer of subcutaneous fat that gives the skin a yellowish appearance, and hybridization of the eyes. These harsh winters would be expected to have acted as a strong selection for increased intelligence, but this obviously did not happen because their IQ is only 91.
The explanation is that they constitute only a very small population. At the end of the twentieth century they were only about 56,000 compared to about 1.4 billion East Asian. Although it is impossible to make accurate estimates of population size during the main glaciation, there is no doubt that Asians far outnumbered the Arctic peoples. The effect of the difference in size of the population was that mutations for greater intelligence were much less likely to appear in eskimos. The East Asians include the Chinese, Koreans and Japanese, they formed a unique breeding population in which mutant alleles for high intelligence have spread, but have not been passed on to the peoples of the Arctic isolated by high mountains and long distance. The Arctic peoples, however, have evolved to a larger brain size, superior to that of East Asians, pointing to ongoing evolutionary processes.
There is another anomaly in the intelligence of the peoples of North Asia concerning the IQ of the Mongolian Mongolians and the closely related Samoyeds of northern Siberia. There is no study of the intelligence of these peoples, but their low level of cultural and technological development suggests that it is not so high as that of Asians in eastern China, Japan and Korea. Yet these peoples have also experienced several thousand years of severe winter conditions that have produced pronounced morphological adaptations of hybridization of the eyes, short legs, and a thick trunk that has evolved in the peoples of the Arctic. The probable explanation for this anomaly is the small size of the population of these peoples (the population of present-day Mongolia is about 2.4 million) and they have been isolated from neighboring peoples by the Gobi desert and high mountain ranges, new mutations for higher intelligence have not occurred and their geographical isolation has prevented the acquisition of these mutations among the other races.
Native Americans evolved from people who migrated from North Asia to Alaska through the Bering Strait and then made their way to America.
The dates on which these passages were made are disputed and it has been frequently asserted that they occurred 12,000 to 11,000 years ago. Contrary to these allegations, there is every reason to believe that they were made much earlier around 40,000 years ago. Evidence comes from both archeology and genetic analysis. Archaeological discoveries of Native American artifacts have been dated by radiocarbon analysis at -24,000 years in Mexico (Lorenzo and Mirambell, 1996), -30,000 years in California (Bada, Schroeder, and Carter, 1974), -32,000 years in northeastern Brazil (Guidon and Delibrias, 1996), -35,000 to -43,000 years for a Rockwall painting in the Serra da Capivara National Park in northeastern Brazil (Watanabe, Aïta, Mamaguchi, et al., 2003) and -33,000 years at Monte Verde in Chile (Dillehay and Collins, 1998). It took the people several thousand years to make their way from Alaska to South America. Archaeological evidence is corroborated by genetic analysis that also dates the first migration to the Americas to about -40,000 years (Cavalli-Sforza, 2000).
It seems very likely that archaic East Asians migrated north about 50,000 years ago, some migrated north to the Kamchatka Peninsula and then to Cherski and then crossed the Bering Strait in Alaska. 40,000 years old. Some of these peoples migrated south until they colonized all of the Americas and evolved into Native Americans, while the archaic Asian peoples who remained in North Asia evolved into the Far East. The common and relatively recent origin of these two races is apparent by a number of genetic similarities. For example, the rhesus negative blood group is rare in both breeds, the Diego blood group is unique to both breeds, and they both have similar hair texture and black hair. These two breeds also have special incisors, and inca bone in the skull (Krantz, 1990).
The archaic Asians, ancestors of the Amerindians, who were present in North Asia around -60,000 to -50,000 years ago, were exposed to cold winters, but they were not as severe as those of the second ice age between -28,000 and -10,000 years (Roberts, 1994). Amerindians have never been exposed to extreme cold and do not have the morphological adaptations to cold weather present in East Asians. The nose is not recessed but is salient, and they do not have a complete hybridization of the eyes, nor the short legs and the thick trunk. In these respects, they are similar to the Ainu, the first inhabitants of Japan. We still find some on the island of Hokkaido. Nor do they have the morphological adaptation to cold climates because the climate of Japanese islands was less severe than that of continental Asia. Their Q.I is 97 (K. Kura et al., 2014), lower than the average Q.I of East Asians (105).
Amerindians settled in America between -33,000 and -30,000 years ago. Those from the southern United States and South America were not exposed to the severe conditions of the main glaciation, so they did not evolve towards the morphological adaptations of the cold and the higher IQ of the Asians from the east.
In addition, once the ancestors of the Amerindians crossed the Bering Strait to the Americas, they found a number of herbivorous mammals such as mammoths, antelopes, sloths, armadillos and bison, who were not used to being chased by the man. Normally, predators and prey evolve together as predators become smarter to capture their prey, and prey becomes smarter to escape predators. But the herbivorous animals of the Americas had no experience of human predation and were easy prey for trained hunters who had evolved for several thousand years in the harsher environment of North Asia. Native Americans found many of these herbivores easy to catch, and as they migrated south, they also found plant foods more readily available so that plant foods came to play an important role in their diets ( MacNeish, 1976, Hayden, 1991).
The evolution of intelligence among Amerindians can be reconstructed as follows. The archaic Asiatic from which he evolved would have had more intelligence than the South Asians, since they were exposed to the harsh climate of North Asia for about 20,000 years, between about -60,000 and -40,000 years ago. The ancestors of Native Americans also spent a few thousand years in Alaska during which they experienced a harsh climate that increased their intelligence. Once they have been in the South of the Americas the pressure of selection for any further increase in intelligence will have been low because of the mild climate and ease of survival in the continent, previously untapped by humans. This explains their IQ of 86, a little higher than the 84 South Asians, but much lower than the 105 Asian East. This reconstruction provides further evidence that it is the selection pressure exerted by the main glaciation of -28,000 to -10,000 years ago that increased the intelligence of East Asians by about 19 IQ points. more than the Amerindians.
There is a problem with this reconstruction, the Amerindians in the northern part of North America would have been exposed to the cold winters during the Würm Main glaciation and it is expected that this should have increased their intelligence. The most likely explanation for why this did not happen was that the Amerindian population was quite small.
The reliable estimate of the first population sizes is 1 million in -400 in North America (Biraben, 1980). Therefore, the probability of mutations for more intelligence was quite small and probably these mutations never occurred or at least in a smaller proportion than in East Asians or Europeans, who were much more numerous.
Native Americans have the same intellectual profile as Eskimos and Asians, namely strong spatial visualization abilities and weaker verbal abilities. The likely explanation for this common profile is that one or more mutations for superior visualization abilities appeared in archaic Asians around -50,000 years ago and were passed down to East Asian people, to the peoples of the Arctic, and to the Amerindians. Genetic studies have shown that there are independent genes to determine visiospatial intelligence in addition to those that determine verbal abilities and general intelligence (Plomin, DeFries, and McClearn, 1990).
With their IQ of 86, Amerindians were able to make the Neolithic transition from hunting-gathering to sedentary agriculture and then build the civilization of the Mayas, Aztecs and Incas. However, despite their rather impressive civilizations the Amerindians were not tall compared to the Europeans from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who had no trouble fighting them in battle, taking away most of their land, and killing a great number.
The average IQ of the different breeds can be explained as resulting from the different environments in which these races lived, with in particular the impact of the Ice Age in the northern hemisphere having exerted selection pressures for greater intelligence for can survive during cold winters.
There were mutations for more intelligence in the breeds
-With numerous populations
-Submitted to stress due to the cold.
Differences in IQ between races explain the differences in the ability to make the Neolithic transition from hunting-gathering to sedentary agriculture, the construction of early civilizations and the development of mature civilizations during the last two thousand years. The position of environmentalists who claim that since its creation 100,000 years ago, men, separated by geographical barriers in different parts of the world, have evolved into a dozen different races with marked differences in genetic morphology, blood groups and the incidence of genetic diseases, however, would have the same genotypes for intelligence, is so unlikely that those who advance must be totally ignorant of the fundamental principles of evolutionary biology or have a political agenda to negate the importance of the race. Or both.